Get detailed syllabus of optional subject of HPSC HCS Exam 2018. This syllabus is as per changed, latest exam pattern as per HPSC Brocher.

hpsc hsc syllabus 2018

List of Optional Subjects for Main (Written) Examination:

  1. Agriculture
  2. Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
  3. Botany
  4. Chemistry
  5. Civil Engineering
  6. Commerce & Accountancy
  7. Economics
  8. Electrical Engineering
  9. English Literature
  10. Geography
  11. Hindi Literature (in Devnagri script)
  12. Indian History
  13. Law
  14. Mathematics
  15. Mechanical Engineering
  16. Physics
  17. Political Science & International
  18. Psychology
  19. Public
  20. Punjabi Literature
  21. Sociology
  22. Sanskrit Literature
  23. Zoology



Part I

Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping, and their importance in relation to food

production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oil seeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country. Extension, social forestry and agro-forestry. Second generation problems of green revolution and approaches to solve these problems. Diversification and value addition in agricultural crops. W.T.O. and its impact on Indian agriculture. Sustainable agriculture.

Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds. Zero tillage.

Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Methods of irrigation and drainage. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils. Soil-water-plant relationship.

Types of soils in India. Soil as medium of plant growth and its composition. Mineral and organic constituents of the soil and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of soil. Soil colloids. Essential plant nutrients (macro and micro) and their functions. Deficiency symptoms of plant nutrients. Mechanism of nutrient absorption. Problem soils –distribution and their reclamation. Principles of soil fertility. Organic manures and bio-fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers (straight, complex and mixed). Integrated

nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Fixation of P and K in soil and scope for their efficient use.

Principles of economics as applied to agriculture. Farm management–scope, importance, characteristics. Farm planning and budgeting. Types and systems of farming and factors effecting them. Farm mechanization. Social marketing.

Philosophy, objectives, scope and principles of extension. Early extension efforts in India. Methods of communication. Evaluation of extension programmes. CD programmes. On farm testing and frontline demonstration.


Cell division. Nucleic acids–structure and function. Gene and chromosome. Laws of heredity, their significance in plant breeding. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Qualitative and quantitative characters.

Modes of reproduction. Selfing and crossing techniques. Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops. Methods of breeding of self and cross pollinated crops and vegetatively propagated crops. Plant introduction. Pureline selection and mass selection. Handling of hybrid populations–bulk, pedigree, backcross and single seed descent method. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation. Heterosis breeding. Male sterility and self incompatibility. Composites, synthetics and multiline varieties . Top cross and polycross. Apomixis. Clonal selections. Tissue culture. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Breeding for disease resistance. Role of mutation and polyploidy in plant breeding. Seed production and certification.

Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration. Photosynthesis–modern concepts and factors affecting the process. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. C3, C4,and

CAM mechanisms. Photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones and other plant regulators and importance in agriculture. Dormancy.

Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits plants, vegetable crops and flower plants; their package of practices with scientific basis. Post harvest handling and marketing problems of fruits, flowers and vegetables. Preservation of important fruits and vegetable products. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.

Diseases and pests of fields, vegetables and fruit crops of India and measures to control them. Causes and classification of plant diseases. Principles of plant disease control. Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests of cereals and pulses, and their management.



  1. Animal Nutrition

Energy sources, energy metabolism and requirements for maintenance and production of milk, meat, eggs. Evaluation of feeds as sources of energy. Sources of protein metabolism and synthesis, protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein ratios in ration. Sources, functions and requirements of minerals in animal diet. Inter relationship of the basic mineral nutrients including trace elements. Vitamins, hormones and growth stimulating substances. Their sources, functions, requirements and inter relationship with minerals.

Advances in Ruminant Nutrition (Dairy Cattle) – Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for calves, heifers, dry and milking cows and buffaloes. Limitations of various feeding systems.

Advance in Non-Ruminant Nutrition (Poultry) – Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to poultry, meat and egg production. Nutrients requirements and feed formulation and broilers at different ages.

Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition–A critical review and evaluation of feeding experiments, digestibility and balance studies. Feeding standards and measures of feed energy. Nutrition requirements for growth, maintenance and production. Balanced rations.

  1. Animal Physiology

Prenatal and postnatal growth, maturation, growth curves measures of growth, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.

Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk secretion and milk ejection. Male and female reproduction organs, their components and functions. Digestive organs and their functions.

Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaption, environmental factors and regulatory mechanism involved in animal behaviour, methods of controlling climatic stress.

Components of semen, composition of spermatozoae, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, factors affecting semen in vivo and in vitro. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation. Detection of oestrus and time of insemination for better conception.

  1. Livestock Production and Management

Comparision of dairy farming in India with advanced countries. Dairying under mixed farming and as a specialised farming, economic dairy farming. Starting of a dairy farm and factors for success of a dairy entrepreneur. Capital and land requirement, organisation of the dairy farm. Procurement of goods, opportunities in dairy farming, factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal. Herd recording, budgeting, cost of milk production, pricing policy. Personnel management. Feeding and management of animals under drought, flood and other natural calamities.

  1. Genetics and Animal Breeding

Mitosis and Meiosis. Mendelian inheritance. Deviations to Mendelian genetics. Expression of genes. Linkage and crossing over. Sex determination, sex influenced and sex limited characters. Blood groups and polymorphism. Chromosome abberations. Gene and its structure. DNA as a genetic material. Genetic code and protein synthesis. Recombinant DNA technology. Mutations, types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and mutation rate.

Population genetics as applied to animal breeding. Quantitative Vs. qualitative traits. Hardy Weinberg Law. Population Vs. individual. Gene and genotypic frequency. Forces changing gene frequency. Random drift and small population. Theory of path coefficient. Inbreeding, methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding. Effective population size. Breeding value, estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation. Partitioning of variation. Genotype × environment correlation and genotype × environment interaction.

Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of estimation and precision of estimates. Aids to selection and their relative merits. Individual, pedigree, family and within family selection. Progeny testing. Methods of selection. Construction of selection indices and their uses. Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods. Indirect selection and Correlated response. Inbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of breeds. Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production. Selection for general and specific combining ability.

Part II

  1. Health and Hygiene

Structure of cell, organells and inclusions. Cell division. Cell types. Tissues and their classification. Embryonic and adult tissues. Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals. Gametogenesis, fertilization, germ layers, foetal membranes and placentation; types of placenta in domestic mammals.

Physiology of blood and its circulation–blood constituents; properties and functions; coagulation of blood; haemorrhagic disorders; anticoagulants; blood groups; circulation; physiology of heart. Respiration–mechanism of respiration; transport and exchange of gases; neural control of respiration. Exeretion–structure and function of kidney; formation of urine. Endocrine glands–functional disorders; their symptoms and diagnosis; synthesis of hormones; mechanism and control of secretion.

General knowledge of pharmacology and therapeutics drugs. Celluar level pharmacodynamics and pharma- cokinetice. Modem concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative anaesthetics. Autocoide. Antimicrobials and principles of chemotherapy in microbial injections. Use of hormones in therapeutics. Chemotherapy of parasitic infections.

Veterinary hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation. Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil. Importance of climate in animal health. Effect of environment on animal function and performance. Housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. pregnant cows and sows, milking cows, broiler birds. Stress, strain and productivity in relation to animal habitation.

  1. Animal Diseases

Pathogenesis, symptoms, post mortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of cattle, pigs and poultry, horses, sheep and goats. Etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production of cattle, pig and poultry. Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds. Diagnosis and treatment of non-specific condition like impaction, bloat, diarrhoea, indigestion, dehydration, stroke, poisoning. Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. Principles and methods of immunisation of animals against specific diseases–hard immunity, disease free zones–

‗zero‘ disease concept– chemoprophylaxis. Immunity and immunoregulation in animals – role of cytokines in protection of animals from diseases as well as role of immune response in allergic and auto immune diseases. Diagnosis and treatment of immunological of disorders and diseases of animals. Anaesthesia–local, regional and general. Pre-anesthetic medication.

  1. Veterinary Public Health

Zoonoses–classification, definition, role of animals and birds in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases, occupational zoonotic diseases.

Epidemiology–principle, definition of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the study of diseases and disease control. Epidemiological features of air, water and food borne infections.

Veterinary Jurisprudence–rules and regulations for improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases. State and control rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases, S.P.C.A., veterolegal cases, certificates. Duties and role of veterinarian in slaughter house to provide meat that is product under ideal hygienic conditions. By-products from a slaughter houses and their economic utilization.

  1. Milk and Milk Products Technology

Milk Technology–Organization of rural milk procurement collection and transport of raw milk. Quality, testing and grading raw milk. Quality storage grades of whole milk. Skimmed milk and cream. Processing, packaging, storing, distributing, marketing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks : pasteurized, standardized, toned, double toned, sterilized, homogenized, reconstituted, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, yoghurt, Dahi, Lassi and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterilized milks. Legal standards. Sanitation requirement for clean and safe milk and for the milk plant equipment.

Milk Products Technology–Selection of raw materials, assembling, production, processing, storing, distributing and marketing of milk products.

  1. Meat Hygiene

Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter and dressing operations. Battoir requirements and designs. Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts. Grading of carcass meat cuts. Duties and functions of veterinarians in wholesome meat production.

  1. Extension

Basic philosophy, objectives, concept and principles of extension. Different methods adopted to educate farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology, its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for rural development.


Part – I

  1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology

Main features that characterize microbes. Bacteria : Structure and modes of nutrition and reproduction. Role of bacteria in agriculture, forestry, industry and medicine. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry and medicine.Nature, structure of TMV and bacteriophage. Classification of plant diseases on the basis of causal organisms and symptoms. Modes of infection and dissemination. Symptoms, causal organisms and control of late- blight of potato, black-stem rust of wheat, red-rot of sugarcane, citrus canker and Bhindi Mosaic Virus.

  1. Cryptogams

Algae : Economic importance of alage. Vegetative and reproductive features of Nostoc, Volvox, Ulothrix and Batrachospermum. Fungi : Economic importance of fungi. Vegetative and reproductive features of Phytophthora, Penicillium, Agaricus, Puccinia and Collectorichum. General account of Lichens.

  1. Bryophytes

Main morphological features (excluding developmental details) of Marchantia and Funaria.

  1. Pteriodophytes

Morphological features (excluding developmental details) of Selaginella and Pteris. Heterospory, seed habit and its significance in Selaginells.

  1. Gymnosperms

Characteristic features of sporophytes and gametophytes of Cycas and Pinus.

  1. Phytogeography

Concept and significance of various floristic regions of India. Endemism and endemic plants of India.

  1. Systematics

Concept and basis of species, genera and families. Bentham and Hooker‘s classification–its basis, merits and demerits. Diagnostic floral features of Compositae, Cruciferae, Graminae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae.

  1. Anatomy

Anatomical features of monocot and dicot roots and shoots. Secondary growth in roots and shoots.

Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena.

  1. Embryology

Structure and morphology of anther, pollen and embryo sac (polygonum type). Structure of mature monocot and dicot embryo and seed.

  1. Economic Botany

Morphological and economic utility of the edible parts of wheat, rice, maize, sugar-cane, groundnut, gram, beans, potato, tomato, onion, banana, apple, fig and mango. Morphological nature and economic utility of coriandrum, turmeric, ginger, cardamom & cinchona. Medicinal utility of opium, Atropa, Azadirachta, Rauwolfia and Cannabis.

Part – II

  1. Cytogenetics

Basic differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Physical and chemical structure of higher plant chromosomes. Mendelism and principles of segregation and independent assortment. Gene interactions– complementary, supplimentary, inhibitory, epistasis. Sex linked genes and their inheritance pattern. Sex determination in lower and higher plants. Male sterility – concept, gene-control and use. Extra chromosomal inheritance. Mutations–Concept, types (spontaneous and induced, macro and micro–mutations) and their role in evolution and crop improvement. Polyploidy–concept, types (Allo-, auto-, eu- and aneuploidy) and role in plant evolution. Mechanism of DNA transcription and RNA translation. Gene regulation as revealed by Lac-operon Modern concept about gene structure and function.

  1. Plant Breeding and Biostatistics

Methods of breeding–introduction, selection, hybridization and backcrossing. Heterosis and use in crop breeding. Malesterility. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Transgenic crops. Brief idea about mean, mode median, standard deviation, standard error and correlations (bivariate only). Coefficient of variation (CV). Test of significance (t, chi square)

  1. Physiology and Biochemistry

Ascent of sap. Transpiration. Role of light in carbon fixation and photosynthesis. Carbon fixation in C3, C4, CAM plants. Photorespiration. Mechanism and significance of respiration (aerobic and anaerobic). Nitrogen fixation and its genetic control. Role of micro-nutrients in plant nutrition. Role of growth regulators (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins) in plant development, differentiation and development. Physiology of dormancy and seed germination. Photoperiodism and vernalization.

  1. Plant Ecology

Environment and its factors (biotic, climatic, edaphic and physiographic) which influence plant growth and development. Ecosystem– Structure and function. A brief account of food chain, ecological pyramids, energy flow, pollution, acid-rain, global-warming. Biodiversity–concept, definition, depletion and conservation. Endangered and the threatened plants, extinction and biosphere reserves.

  1. Applied Botany

Cell, organ and tissue culture– procedure and utility. Protoplast–isolation and culture (a brief account). Recombinant DNA technology– methods to produce DNA and its utility in plants. In-vitro gene transfer– agrobacterium mediated gene transfer , direct gene transfer by electroporation, microinjection and biolistic methods (brief accounts only). Utility of transgenic plants in agriculture, horticulture and forestery.


Part I

  1. Atomic Structure : Heisenberg‘s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent).

Particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers. Shapes of s,p and d orbitals.

  1. Chemical bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole

Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular or bital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules; H2, H2 to Ne2. Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond

order, bond strength and bond length.

  1. Solid State: Bragg‘s law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radius ratio rules, Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCI,. Imperfections in crystals, Schottky and Frenkel defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.
  2. The Gaseous State: Equation of state for real gases, Maxwell‘s distribution of
  3. Thermodynamics and Statistical Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy first law of thermodynamics, work done in isothermal and adiabatic expanson and enthalpy changes in various processes.Hess‘s Law. Second law of Thermodynamics; Entropy of perfect gas in terms of volume, temperature and pressure. Nernst Heat theorem, Third law of Thermodynamics-its purpose, Plank‘s formulation, Statement of Lewis and Randall. Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition
  4. Clausius-Clapeyron equation, partial molar quantities, chemical potential and Gibbs–Duham equation, variation of chemical potential with temperature and
  5. Electrode potential, Standard hydrogen electrode, Electoro–chemical series and its application in determining E.M.F. of cell and feasibility of a reaction, Nernst
  1. Chemical Kinetics: Concentration dependence of rate of reaction –law of mass action and rate law expression ; order of reaction, integrated rate equations for first order reactions; effect of temperature on rate Elementary idea about collisions and transition state theories and their comparison.
  2. Photochemistry: Absorption of light; laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, decay of excited state by different routes; Fluorescence and
  3. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis: Adsorption from and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area by E.T.
  4. Coordination Chemistry : IUPAC nomenclature, Isomerism and sterio-chemistry of complexes with coordination numbers four and six. Crystal field Theory, Factors effecting Crystal field splitting, John Teller effect .
  5. Chemistry of d block elements: Transition metals including Lanthanides – General characteristic properties oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour etc. Lanthanide contractions, its cause and

Part II

1.. (a) Reaction mechanisms : Kinetic versus Thermodynamic control, Hammond‘s Postulate, Method of determining reaction mechanism – isotope effect, solvent effect, catalysis and steric effect, Potential energy diagram transition state and Intermediates.

(b) Reactive intermediates : Structure and stability of carbocations, carbanians, carbenes and free radicals.

  1. Substitution reactions : Nucleophilic substitution first order and second order (SNI and SN2) reactions, stereo-chemistry of these reactions and their comparison. Mechanism of Rearrangements: Pinacol–pinacolone, Beckmann, Claisen, Cope and fries
  2. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions: Aldol condesation. Claisen condensation, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Wittig. Canizzaro and bonzoin condensations, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky
  3. Polymeric Systems: (a) Physical chemistry of polymers :- number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, osmotic presure, viscosity. (b)Preparation and properties of polymers: Organic polymers–polythylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural
  4. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation: (a) Rotational spectra–diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants. (b) Vibrational spectra–diatomic molecule; linear triatomic molecules. (c) Electronic spectra :– Singlet and triplet states, n®*p and p®p* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls– Woodward–Fieser rules. (d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of H NMR to simple organic



  1. Engineering Mechanics

Units and dimensions. SI Units. Vectors. Concept of force. Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane. Moment of force. Free body diagram. Conditions of equilibrium. Principle of virtual work. Equivalent force system. First and Second Moment of area. Mass moment of inertia. Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings. Kinematics and Kinetics. Motion under uniform and non-

uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of partice : Momentum and energy principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

  1. Strength of Materials

Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending and shear.

Deflection of beams: Mecaulay‘s method, Mohr‘s Moment area method. Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler‘s, Rankine‘s and Secant formulae. Principal stresses and strains in two dimensions, Mohr‘s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, thin and thick cylinders.

  1. Structural Analysis

Castiglianio‘s theorems I and II, Unit load method, method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution, indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for shear force and bending moment at a section of a beam criteria for maximum shear force and bending moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses. Arches : Three hinged; rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.

Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method. Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principal Axes, calculation of bending stresses.

  1. Design of Structures

Structural steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

Design of concrete and masonry structures. Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of design – Recommendations of I.S. codes, design of one way and two way slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings. Cantilever and Counterfort type retaining walls.

Prestressed Concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.

  1. Fluid Mechanics

Fluid properties and their role fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces. Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow; Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, flow separation, free and forced votices. Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler‘s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, orifice meters and Venturi meters. Dimensional Analysis and Similitudes; Buckingham‘s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory.

Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between parallel, plates, flow through tube.

Boundry layer: Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough boundaries.

Turbulent flow through pipes; Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.

  1. Open channel flow

Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves, gradually varied flow, classification surface profiles, control section.

  1. Geo-technical Engineering

Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay mineralogy. Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darey‘s Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits. Seepage

pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi‘s theory one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, field control of composition, Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients. Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests. Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankine‘s theory, Coulomb‘s theory, Coulomb‘s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall. Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure. Immediate and consolidation settlement. Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number. Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests. Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils, Boussinessq‘s theory, Newmarks‘ chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable steelement. Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts footing , Pile foundation, types of piles, pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity. Ground improvement techniques–preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.

Part II

  1. Construction technology Engineering Materials

Physical properties of construction materials : Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete. Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, Flooring Tiles, use of ferro- cement, fibre-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete. Timber; Properties and uses; defects in timber, seasoning and preservation of timber. Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials, termite profiting, Materials for Low cost housing.

Construction: Building components and their functions; brick masonry; bonds; jointing; stone masonry.

Design of brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, plastering, pointing. Types of floors and roofs.

  1. Constructions Equipment

Factors affecting the selection of equipment, study, capital and maintenance cost. Concreting equipments: Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, concrete pump. Earth-work equipments: Power shovel, hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.

  1. Construction Planning and Management

Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, newwork analysis; CPM and PERT analysis, Float Time, crashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, cost analysis, floats, slack time, numbering of network, probability of completing the project.

  1. Survey

Common methods of distance and angle measurements, compass traversing, plane table survey, levelling. travelling, traverse survey, triangulation survey, balancing of traverse, contouring, topographical map. Technometry. Circular and transition curves.

  1. Transporation Engineering

Railways : Permanent way, sleepers, rail fasternings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs, stations and yards, signals and interlocking, levelcrossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways ; Superelevation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort.

Highway Engineering: Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments. Geometrical design: Cross section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads; low cost roads flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction. Drainage of roads : Surface and sub-surface drainage. Traffic Engineering: Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised and unchannalised intersections, rotary design elements markings, signs, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys.

  1. Hydrology

Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, despression storage, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph. Ground water flow: Specific yield, storage coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube walls, pumping and recuperation tests ground water potential.

  1. Irrigation Engineering

Water requirements of crops : consumptive-use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies. Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport. Water logging: causes and control, drainage system design, salinity. Canal structures : Khosla‘s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders. Spillways : Spilway types, crest gates, energy dissipation. River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

  1. Environment Engineering

Water Supply : Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water. Intake of water: Pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment; principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; Slow- rapid- pressure filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity. Analysis of distribution systems.

Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewerage–separate and combined system, flow through sewers, design of sewers. Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land. Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge.


Part-I : Accounting and Finance

  1. Financing Accounting

Accounting as a financial information system. Impact of behavioural sciences. Advanced problems of company accounts. Amalgamations, absorption and reconstruction of companies. Valuation of shares and goodwill.

  1. Cost Accounting

Nature and functions of cost accounting. Job costing. Process costing. Marginal costing. Techniques of segregating semivariable costs into fixed and variable costs. Cost-volume–profit relationship. Aid to decision making including pricing decisions, shutdown etc. Techniques of cost control and cost reduction. Budgetary control, flexible budgets. Standard costing and variance analysis. Responsibility accounting, investment, profit and cost centres.

  1. Taxation

Definitions. Basis of charge. Incomes which do not form part of total income. Simple problems of computation of income under various heads, i.e. salaries, income from house property, profits and gains from business of profession, capital gains, income of other persons included in assessee‘s total income. Aggregation of income and set off/carry forward of loss. Deductions to be made in computing total income.

  1. Auditing

Meaning and objects of auditing. Internal check and internal audit. Audit of cash transactions, expenses, incomes, purchases, sales. Valuation and verification of assets with special reference to fixed assets, stocks and debts.

Verification of liabilities. Audit of limited companies. Appointment, removal, powers, duties and liabilities of a company auditor. Auditor‘s report and qualifications therein. Board outlines of company audit with reference to share capital transactions and statutory report. Audit of Govt. Companies under sec. 619 of the Companies Act. Cost audit under sec. 233 (B) of the Companies Act. Special points in the audit of different organisations like clubs, hospitals, colleges, charitable societies.

  1. Business Finance and Financial Institutions

Finance function. Nature, scope and objectives of financial management. Risk and return relationship. Financial analysis as a diagnostic tool. Management of working capital and its components. Forecasting working capital needs, inventory, debtors, cash and credit management. Investment decisions. Nature and scope of capital budgeting. Various types of decisions including make or buy and lease or buy. Techniques of appraisal and their application. Analysis of non-financial aspects. Rate of return on investments. Required rate of return. Its measurement. Cost of Capital. Weighted average cost. Different weights. Concept of valuation of firm‘s fixed income, securities and common stocks. Dividends and retention policy–residual. Actual practices. Capital structure, leverages, significance of leverages, theories of capital structure. Planning the capital structure of a company. EBIT– EPS Analysis Cashflow ability to service debt, capital structure ratios, other methods. Raising finance (short term and long terms). Bank finance (norms and conditions). Money markets. The purposes of money markets. Money markets in India. Organisation and working of capital markets in India. Organisation structure and role of financial institutions in India. Banks and investing institutions. National and international financial institutions. Supervision and regulation of banks. Monetary and credit policy of Reserve Bank of India. Provisions of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 relating to crossings and endorsements with particular reference to statutory protection to the paying and collection bankers. Salient provision of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 with regard to chartering, supervision and regulation of banks.

Part-II : Organisation Theory and Industrial Relations

  1. Organisation Theory

Nature and concept of organisation. Organisation goals. Primary and secondary goals, single and multiple goals, ends means chain-displacement, succession, expension and multiplication of goals. Formal organisation – type, structure, line and staff . Informal organisation–functions and limitations. Evolution of organisation theory : Classical, neoclassical and system approach. Organisation behaviour as a dynamic system. Technical, social and power system. Interrelations and interactions. Perception. Status system. Theoretical and emprical foundation of theories and models of motivation. Moral and productivity. Leadership. Theories and styles. Management of conflicts in organisations. Limits or rationality. Organisational change, adaptation, growth and development. Professional management Vs. family management. Organisation control and effectiveness.

  1. Industrial Relations

Nature and scope of industrial relations the socio economic setup, need for positive approach. Industrial labour in India and its commitment–stages of commitments. Migratory nature–merits and shortcomings. Theories of Unionism. Trade Union movements in India–origin, growth and structure. Attitude an approach of management in India–recognisation. Problems before Indian Trade Union movement. Sources of industrial disputes –Strikes and lockouts. Compulsory adjudication and collective bargaining–approaches. Workers participation in management– philosophy, rationale. Present day state of affairs and future prospects. Prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in India. Industrial relations in public enterprises. Absenteeism and labour turnover in Indian industries– causes. Relative wages and wage differentials. Wage policy in India. The Bonus issue. International Labour Organisation and India. Role of personal department in the organisation.



  1. Micro economic

Concept of equilibrium. Law of demand. Marshallian utility and indifference curve analysis and their comparisons. Concept of consumer surplus. Elasticity of demand. Income elasticity. Theory of production . Production function and technological progress. Law of Returns to Scale. Law of variable proportions. Isocost and Isoquants. Theory of cost. Concept of opportunity cost. Cost curves. Perfect competition. Price determination. Equilibrium of firm and industry in market period. Supply curves. Monopoly. Equilibrium of the monopolist. Comparison of perfect competition and monopoly. Price discrimination. Equilibrium in discriminating monopoly and effects of price discrimination. Monopolistic competition. Demand curves. Firm and group equilibrium. Determination of equilibrium level. Comparison with pure competition and monopoly. Theory of marginal productivity. Theories of wage determination. Modern theory of rent. Theories of interest, classical, neo-classical and liquidity preference. Gross and net profit.

Ricardian, Marshallian. Types of Markets and price determination. Alternate theories of distribution.

  1. Nature, types and functions of money. Measurement of price level changes. Monetary standards. High powered money and quantity theory of money, its variants and critiques thereof. Demand for and supply of money. The money multiplier. Theory of money (Fishers, Cambridge and Keynes version). Theories of determination of interest rate. Interest and prices. Theories of inflation and control of
  2. Full employment and Say‘s Law. Underemployment equilibrium. Keynes‘s theory of employment (and income) determination. Critiques of Keynesian theory. Applicability of Keynesian approach to developing countries. Wage and employment – classical and Keyne‘s
  3. Functions of Central Bank, Process of credit creation, Credit control – types and effects, Structure of money markets and capital markets in developing countries like
  4. Public finance and its role in market economy in stabilisation, supply, stability, allocative, efficiency, distribution and development. Sources of revenue. Forms of taxes and subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans. Crowding–out effects. Limits to borrowings. Types of budget deficits. Public expenditure and its effects.
  5. International Economics :
  • Old and new theories of international (a) Comparative advantage, terms of trade and offer curve.
  • ―Trade as an engine of growth‖ and theories of under development in an open economy.
  • Forms of
  • Balance of payments, composition, disequilibria, types, remedies for adverse balance of payments, fixed versus floating rates.
  • IMF and the World Bank ; T.O.
  1. Growth and Development :
  • Theories of growth : Classical and neo-classical theories. The Harrod model. Economic development under surplus labour, Wage-goods as a constraint on growth. Relative importance of physical and human capitals in growth. Innovations and development. Productivity, its growth and source of changes thereof. Factors determining savings to income ratio and the capital-outut ratio.
  • Main features of growth : Changes in sectoral compositions of income. Changes in occupational distribution. Changes in income distribution. Changes in consumption levels and patterns. Changes in savings and investment and in patterns of investments. Case for and against industrialization. Significance of agriculture in developing
  • Relation between state planning and growth. Changing roles of market and plans in growth. Economic policy and
  • Role of foreign capital and technology in growth. The significance of multi-nationals.
  • Welfare indicators and measures of growth. Human development indices. The basic needs

Part II

  1. Indian Economics in Past : Independence Era – Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and Rao. National and percapita Income, patterns, trends, aggregate and sectoral. Composition and change
  2. Employment : Nature and types of unemployment in developing countries. Factors determining employment in short and long periods. Role of capital, wages-goods, wage-rate and technology. Measures of unemployment. Relation between income poverty and employment and issues of distribution and social justice. Agricultural development in India since 1951. Agriculture institutional set-up of land system, size of agricultural holdings and efficiency. Green revolution and technological changes. Agricultural price and terms of trade. Role of public distribution and farm subsidies on agricultural prices. Employment and poverty in agriculture. Employment schemes. Growth experience. Land reforms. Regional disparities in agricultural growth. Role of Agriculture in export.
  3. Industry : Industrial development in India since 1951 and industrial policy. Industrial system of India. Trends in composition and growth. Role of public and private sectors. Role of small and cottage industries. Indian Industrial strategy. Capital versus consumer goods. Wage-goods versus luxuries. Capital intensive versus labour. Intensive techniques. Import substituting versus export promotions. Sickness and high-cost Industrial policies and their effects. Recent moves for liberalisation and their effects of Indian
  4. Money and Banking : The monetary institutions of India. Instruments of credit control. Factors determining demand for and supply of money. Sources of reserve money. Money multipliers. Techniques of money supply regulation under open economy. Functioning of money market in India. Budget deficits and money
  5. Index numbers of price level : Course of price level in post–Independence period. Sources and causes of inflation. Role of monetary and supply factors in price level determination. Policies towards control of inflation. Role of monetary and supply factors in price level determination. Policies towards control of inflation. Effects of inflation under open
  6. Trade balance of payments and exchange : Foreign trade of India. Composition and direction. Shifts in trade policy from import substitution to export promotion. Balance of payment problem and policies to cure it. Impact of liberalisation on pattern of trade. India’s external borrowings and the debt problem. Exchange rate of the rupee, devaluations, depreciations and their effects on balance of payments. Rupee in an open economy. Integration of Indian economy with world economy. India and the
  7. Public Finance and Fiscal policy : Characteristics and trends in India’s public finance. Tax structure in India – drawbacks and remedies. Effect of taxation. Taxable capacity. Role of taxes (direct and indirect) and subsidies. Fiscal and monetary deficits. Public expenditures and their significance. Public finance and inflation. Public debt – its role and burden. Limiting government’s debt. Recent fiscal policies and their effects. Sources of income and heads of expenditure of the centre and state govts. Center-State financial relations. Latest Finance Commission Report. Deficit financing in Protection of consumer interests in India–meaning, significance and implications.
  8. Economic Planning in India : Trends in savings and investment. Trends in saving income and capital. Output ratios. Growth versus distribution. Transition from central planning to indicative planning. Relation between market and plan. Strategies for growth, social justice and plans. Planning and increasing the growth rate. Features and strategies of economic planning in India. A critical review of our planned development since 1951. Outlines of the current Five Year Plan. India‘s population problem and policy to control



  1. Electrical Circuits–Theory and Applications

Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods; nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis, resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filter-theory : design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation.

  1. Signals & Systems

Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals& systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function.

  1. M. Theory

Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : Distributed parameter circuits, travelling and standing waves, impedance matching,

  1. Analog Electronics

Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signals) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Amplifiers ; single and multistage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. Oscillators ; criterion for oscillation. Power supplies.

  1. Digital Electronics

Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits; latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.

  1. Energy Conversion

Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines ; characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers : Principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers, 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines; characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors, single-phase motors; FHP.

  1. Power Electronic and Electric Drives

Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters; fully-controlled and half- controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts; of speed control of dc motor drives.

  1. Analog Communication

Signal to noise ratio. Amplitude modulation; DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrows and FM; generation & detection of FM and PM. Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers. Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.

Part II

  1. Control Systems

Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop system; principles and applications of feed-back. LT1 systems; time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability; Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquist’s criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lag compensators. Proportional . State-variable representations and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

  1. Electrical Engineering Materials

Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials ; conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductor, p-n junction, solar cells, superconductivity; Dielectric behaviour of materials, polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials; behaviour and application.

  1. Microprocessor and Microcomputers

8-bit microprocessor; architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, peripheral controllers.

  1. Measurement and Instrumentation

Error analysis, measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments; multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers ; thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Data- acquisition systems.

  1. Power Systems; Analysis and Control

Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; volatage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability; swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission. Active power control. Frequency control. Economic dispatch.

  1. Power System Protectiion

Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers Computer aided protection; introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays.

  1. Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy; Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: Thermal conversion photo-voltaic conversion. Wave- energy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics; discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle


The Syllabus consists of two parts designed to test a first hand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Literature; Part I : 1600-1900 and Part II : 1900-1990.

Part I

Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of

the following topics and movements: Metaphysical Poetry; The Epic and the Mock-epic. The Romantic Movement; The Rise of the Novel; The Victorian Age.

Section (A)

  1. William Shakespeare : King Lear and The
  2. John Donne. The following poems:
    • Death be not
    • The Good
    • On his Mistress going to
  3. John Milton : Paradise Lost I
  4. Alexander Pope. The Rape of the
  5. William Wordsworth. The following poems:
    • Ode on Intimations of
    • Tintern
    • Three years she grew in Sun and Shower
  • She dwelt among the untrodden
  • Resolution and
  • The World is too much with us.
  • Upon Westminster
  1. Alfred Tennyson : In Memoriam

Section (B)

  1. Jane Austen. Pride and Prejudice.
  2. Henry Fielding. Tom
  3. Charles Dickens. Hard
  4. George Eliot. The Mill on the
  5. Thomas Hardy. Tess of the d‘Urbervilles.


Texts for detailed study are listed below. Candidates will also be required to show adequate knowledge of the following topics and movements.

Modernism; The stream–of–consciousness Novel; Indian Writing in English; Marxist. Section–(A)

  1. William Butler yeats. The following poems:
    • Easter
    • The Second Coming.
    • A Prayer for my
    • Sailing to
    • The Tower Among School
    • Leda and the Swan.
    • The Second Coming.
  2. S. Eliot. The following poems :
    • The Love Song of J.Alfred
    • Journey of the
  3. H. Auden. The following poems:
    • Musee des Beaux Arts
    • In Memory of W.B.
    • Lay your sleeping head, my love
    • The Unknown Citizen.
    • The Shielf of Achilles
    • September 1, 1939.
  4. Philip Larkin. The following poems:
    • Next
    • Please
    • Deceptions
    • Afternoons

(All these poems are available in the anthology Ten twentieth Century Indian Poets, edited by R. Parthasarthy, published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi).

Section (B)

  1. H. Lawrence. Sons and Lovers.
  1. M. Forster. A Passage to India.
  2. Virginia Woolf. Mrs.
  3. Raja Rao.



  1. Physical Geography
    • Geomorphology : Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts. Earth movements. Endogenic and exogenic forces. Physical condition of earth‘s interior. Geosynclines. Continental drift. Isostasy. Plate tectonics. Mountain building. Volcanicity. Earthquakes. Concepts of geomorphic cycles. Weathering and erosion. Cycle of erosion. Landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and karst.
    • Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world. Insolation and heat budget of the earth. Planetary and local winds. Monsoons and jet streams. Air masses and fronts. Temperate and tropical cyclones. Types and distribution of precipitaton. Koppen’s and Thornthwaite’s classification of world climate. Hydrological cycle. .
    • Oceanography: Relief of ocean floors. Temperature and salinity of the oceans. Nature, classification and world distribution of ocean deposits. Ocean currents and tides. Marine resources–biotic, mineral and energy resources. Coral reefs and
    • Biogeography: Gensis of soils. Classification and distribution of soils. Soil profile. Soil erosion and conservation. Problems of deforestation and conservation measures. Social forestry, agro-forestry. Environmental degradation and conservation. Ecosystems and their management. Global warming. Reduction in bio-diversity and depletion of
  2. Human Geography
    • Economic Geography: World agriculture–typology of agricultural regions. Agricultural inputs and productivity. Food and nutritions problems. Famine–causes, effects and remedies. Green revolution – its nature and consequences for the third world countries. Second generation problems of green revolution and approaches to solve these problems. Diversification in agriculture. W.T.O. and its impact on Indian agriculture. Factors affecting agricultural location. A critical appraisal of Von Thunen‘s theory of agricultural location. Major sectors of economic activity (primary, secondary and tertiary). A detailed discussion of their nature and basic principles. Transporation as a factor in the choice and location of economic activities. Ullman‘s model of spatial interaction. Factors affecting industrial location (with special reference to precurement and distribution costs). A critical appreciation of Weber‘s theory of industrial location. Trends in location and distribution of the following industries : iron and steel, cotton textiles, automobiles, petorlium refineries, aluminium. Major industrial regions of the
    • Population and settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population. Causes and consequences of migration. World population problems. Types and patterns of rural settlements. Hierachy of urban settlements. Concept of primate city and rank-size rule. Functional classificatioin of towns. Sphere of urban influence. Rural-urban fringe. Satellite towns. Problems of urbanisation. Spatial organisation of settlements with an introduction to the Charistaller‘s central place

Part II

  1. Geography of India
    • Physical Setting: Structure and relief. Mechanism of Indian monsoons. Tropical cyclones and their consequences and western disturbances. Floods and droughts. Climatic regions. Natural vegetation, soil types and their
  • Resources: Fishries. Surface and groud water. Production and future prospects of energy resources. Energy crisis. Minerals (iron ore, manganese, mica) . Biotic resources, their distribution, utilisation and
  • Agriculture: Infrastructure–irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power. Institutional factors–land holdings, land tenure and land reforms. Agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability. Agro-and social-forestry. Green revolution and its socio-economic and eclogical Significance of dry farming.

Livestock resources and white revolution. A detailed study of the distribution and production of wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and tea. Regional imbalance in levels of agricultural development.

  • Industry and transport : Evolution of industries. Locational factors of cotton textiles, sugar, jute, iron and steel, fertiliser, paper and automobile industries. Industrial complexes and industrial regionlisation. New industrial policy. Multinationals and liberalisation. Road, railway, inland waterway, airway networks and their complementary roles in regional development. Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade. Trade balance. Free trade and export promotion zones. Developments in communication technology and its impact on economy and
  • Cultural Setting: Major tribes and their problems. Growth, distribution and density of population. Demographic attributes–sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, fertility and mortality and longevity. Migratioin (inter-regional, intra-regional and international,rural–urban migration) and associated problems, population problems and
  • Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements. Urban development. Morphology of Indian cities. Functional classification of Indian cities, conurbations and metropolitan regions. Urban sprawl, slums and associated problems. Town planning. Problems of
  • Regional Planning : Five Year Plans. Integrated rural development programmes. Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning. Command area development. Watershed management. Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area
  • Contemporary Issues: Environmental hazards–landslides, earthquakes, epidemics. Issues related to environmental pollution. Population explosion and food security. Environmental degradation. Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest. Regional disparities in economic development. Concept of sustainable growth and development. International boundary of India and related issues. Disputes on sharing of water resources. India and geopolitics of Indian



  1. History of Hindi Language and Nagari
    1. Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik
    2. Development of Braj and Awadhi as Literary languages during medieval
    3. Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusro, Sant Sahitya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni
    4. Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during the 19th Century
    5. Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari
    6. Development of Hindi as a national Language during freedom
    7. The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of
    8. Scientific and Technical development of Hindi
    9. Prominent dialects of Hindi and their
    10. Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Structure of Standard
    11. Grammatical structure of standard

2. History of Hindi Literature

  1. The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi
  2. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi

A . Adikal–Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya. Prominent poets–Vidyapati, Hemchandra, Chandravardai, Khusro.

B . Bhaktikal–Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.

Prominent Poets–Kabir, Jayasi, Tulsi & Sur.

C . Ritikal– Ritibaddhkavya & Riti Mukta Kavya. Prominent Poets–Keshav, Padmakar, Bihari Ghananand. D . Adhunik Kal–

  1. Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal and its
  2. Prominent writers–Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain
  • Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Prayogvad, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi

Prominent Poets–Maithili Sharan Gupt, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.

  • Katha Sahitya
  1. Upanyas and Realism
  2. The origin and development of Hindi
  3. Prominent Novelists–Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism
  4. The origin and development of Hindi short
  5. Prominent Short Story Writers–Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh and Krishna
  6. Drama and Theatre
  7. The origin and Development of Hindi Drama
  8. Prominent Dramatists–Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
  9. The Development of Hindi
  1. Criticism
  2. The origin and development of Hindi Criticism: Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi and Nai
  3. Prominent critics–Ramchandra Shukla, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma and
  4. The other forms of Hindi prose–Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran Yatra-vrittant.

Part II

First hand reading of the following texts to test the critical ability of the candidates :-

  1. Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed. Shyam Sundar Das

(First hundred Sakhis)

  1. Surdas : Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (first hundred Padas)
  2. Tulsidas : Ramcharit Manas (Sundar Kand), Kavitawali (Uttarkand)
  3. Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sindhi Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
  4. Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
  5. Mathili Sharan : Bharat Bharati. Gupt
  6. Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Shraddha Sarg)
  7. Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja and Kukurmutta)
  8. Dinkar : Kurukshetra
  9. Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
  10. Muktibodh : Brahm Rakhashas
  11. Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
  12. Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
  13. Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din
  14. Ramchandra : Chintamani (Part-I) (Kavita Kya Hai, Shraddha Shukla Aur Bhakti)
  1. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya–Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
  2. Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit
  3. Prasad : Skandgupta
  4. Yashpal : Divya
  5. Phaniswar Nath : Maila Anchal Renu
  6. Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
  7. Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)



History of India (Down to AD 750)

  1. The Indus Civilisation : Origin and extent . Characteristic features. Major cities. Trade and contacts. Causes of decline. Survival and
  2. The Vedic Age : Vedic literature. Differences and similarities between Indus Civilisation and Vedic culture. Political, social and economic patterns. Major religious ideas and
  3. The Pre-Maurya Period : Religious movements (Jainism, Buddhism and other sects). Social and economic conditions. Republics and growth of Magadha
  4. The Maurya Empire : Alexander‘s invasion and its effects. Source, rise, extent and fall of Maurya empire. Administration. Social and economic conditions. Ashoka’s policy and reforms.
  5. The Post-Maurya Period (200 B.C. –300 A.D.) : Rule of Indo-Greeks. The Sakas and the Kushanas. Principal dynasties in Northern and Southern India. Economy of society. Sanskrit, Prakrit and Tamil. Religion (rise of Mahayana and theistic cults). Art (Gandhara, Mathura and other schools). Contacts with Central Asia.
  6. The Gupta Age : Rise and fall of the Gupta Empire. The Vakatakas. Administration, society, economy, literature, art and religion. Contacts with South East Asia. General review of education and
  7. Post-Gupta Period (B.C. 500–750A.D.) : The Muakharis. The later Guptas. Harshvardhana and his times. Chalukyas of Badami. The Pallavas. Society, administration and art. The Arab conquest. Rise of Cholas and their administration.

Medieval India (750 A.D. to 1765 A.D.) India : (750 A.D. to 1200 A.D.)

  1. Political and social conditions. The Rajputs–their policy and social structure. Land structure and its impacts on society. Growth of feudalism in north India. Turkish
  2. Trade and commerce.
  3. Maritime Activities : Contacts with the Arabs, Mutual, cultural
  4. Rashtrakutas, their role in history – Contribution to art and culture. The Chola Empire. Local Self- Government, features of the Indian village system. Society, economy, art and learning in the
  5. Indian Society on the eve of Mahmud of Ghazni’s

India : 1200 AD –1765 AD

  1. Foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in Northern India. Causes and circumstances. Its impact on the Indian society. Economic experience of Allauddin
  2. Khilji imperialism – significance and implications, administrative and economic regulations and their impact on state and the
  3. New Orientation of state policies and administrative principles under Muhammed bin Tughluq. Religious policy and public works of Firoz Shah. Scheme of Muhamed Tughluq.Administration of Firoz
  4. Disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate – causes and its effects on the Indian polity and society. Nature and character of State, political ideas and institutions. Agrarian structure and relations, trade and commerce, condition of artisans and
  1. Influence of Islam on Indian Culture. Muslim mystic movements. Nature and significance of Bhakti saints. Cultural interaction between Hindus and
  2. The Vijaynagar Empire : Its origin and growth. Contributioin to art, literature and culture. Social and economic conditions. System of administration. Break-up of the Vijaynagar Empire. The Bahmani
  3. Sources of History : Important chronicles, inscriptions and travellers‘
  4. Establishment of Mughal Empire in northern India. Political and social conditions in Hindustan on the eve of Babur’s invasion. Babur and Humayun. Establishment of the Portuguese control in the Indian ocean, its political and economic
  5. Sur Administration–political, revenue and military
  6. Expansion of the Mughal Empire under Akbar, political unification, new concept of monarchy under Akbar, Akbar’s religio-political outlook. Relations with the non Muslims. Akbar conquest. Rajput policy. Religios policy.
  7. Growth of regional languages and literature during the medieval period. Development of art and architecture.
  8. Political ideas and institutions : Nature of the Mughal state, Mughal administration, land revenue administrations (the Mansabdari and the Jagirdari systems, the landed structure and the role of the Zamindars, agrarian relations), the military organisations. Deccan and NW Frontier policy of Social, cultural and economic conditions during the Mughal period.
  9. Aurangzeb’s religious policy. Expansion of the Mughal Empire in Decan. Revolts against Aurangzeb– character and consequences. Aurangzeb and break up of Mughal empire.
  10. Growth of urban centres. Industrial economy–urban and rural. Foreign trade and commerce. The Mughals and the European trading
  11. Socio–religious relations of Hindu–Muslim during 16 to 18th centuries and growth of composite


  1. Rise of Shivaji, his conflict with the Administration of Shivaji. Expansion of the Maratha

power under the Peshwas (1707–1761). Maratha political structure under the First Three Peshwas. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi. Third Battle of Panipat, causes and effect. Emergence of the Maratha confederacy, its structure and role.

  1. Disintegration of the Mughal Empire. Emergence of the new Regional

Part II

Modern India and Freedom Struggle (1757 AD–1947 AD)

  1. Coming of European powers. Historical forces and factors which led to the British conquest of India. British occupation of Bengal. Growth of British power during Warren Hastings, Wellesley, William Bentick, Dalhousi with special reference to Bengal, Marathas, Sind, Punjab and Oudh. Resistence of Indian powers and causes of their failure. Civil rebillions and Revolt of
  2. Evolution of British paramountcy over princely
  3. Administrative structure and policies – revenue, judicial, social and educational and their linkages with British colonial
  4. British economic policies and their impact. Commercialisation of agriculture. Rural indebtedness. Growth of agriculture labour. Destruction of handicraft industries. Drain of wealth. Growth of modern industry and rise of a capitalist class. Activities of the Christian
  5. Socio-religious movements. Social, religious, political and economic ideas of the reformers and their vision of future. Nature and limitation of 19th Century ―Renaissance‖. Caste movements in general with special reference to South India and Maharashtra. Tribal revolts, specially in Central and Eastern India. Peasant revolts with special reference to indigo revolt, deccan riots and Mapplia
  6. Rise and growth of Indian National Movement. Social basis of Indian nationalism. Foundation of INC. Programmes of the early nationalists (moderates) and extremist. Militant revolutionary groups. Rise and growth of communalism. Emergence of Gandhiji in Indian politics and his techniques of mass mobilisation. Khilafat Movement. Non-Cooperation. Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement. Trade union and peasant movements.

State (s) people movements. The Congress socialists and communists. British official response to National Movement.Constitutional developments during British period (Acts of 1909, 1919, 1935). Indian National Army. Navy Mutiny of 1946. Muslim League. The Partition of India . India‘s Independence.

13. LAW


I Constitutional Law of India

  1. Nature of the Indian Constitution. The distinctive features of its federal
  2. Fundamental Rights. Directive Principles and their relationship with Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Duties.
  3. Right to
  4. Right to Freedom of Speech and
  5. Right to Life and Personal
  6. Religious, Cultural and Educational
  7. Constitutional position of the President and relationship with the Council of
  8. Governor and his
  9. Supreme Court and High Courts. Their powers and
  10. Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions. Their powers and
  11. Principles of Nature
  12. Distribution of legislative powers between the Union and the
  13. Delegated legislation. Its constitutionality, judicial and legislative
  14. Administrative and financial relations between the Union and the
  15. Trade, commerce and intercourse in
  16. Emergency
  17. Constitutional safeguards to civil servants.
  18. Parliamentary privileges and
  19. Amendment of the
  20. International Law
    1. Nature of International
    2. Sources: Treaty, Customs, General Principles of Law recognised by civilized nations, subsidiaries means for the determination of Law, Resolutions of International organs and regulation of International organs and regulations of Specialized
    3. Relationship between International Law and Municipal
    4. State Recognition and State
    5. Territory of States; modes of
    6. Inland waters. Territorial Sea. Contiguous Zone. Continental Shelf. Exclusive. Economic Zone and ocean beyond national Jurisdiction.
    7. Air-space and aerial navigation.
    8. Outer-space. Exploration and use of outer
    9. Individuals, Nationality, Statelessness; Human Rights and procedures available for their
    10. Jurisdiction of States; bases of
    11. Extradition and
    12. Diplomatic Missions and Consular Posts.
    13. Treaties ; Formation, application and
    14. State Responsibility,
    15. United Nations : its principal organs, powers and

Part II

  1. Peaceful settlement of
  2. Lawful recourse to force ; aggression, selfdefence.
  3. Legality of the use of nuclear

I Law of Crimes

  1. Concept of crime : actus reus, mens rea, mens rea in statutory offences, punishments mandatory sentences preparation and
  2. Indian Penal Code
  1. Application of the Code
  2. General
  3. Joint and constructing
  5. Criminal
  6. Offences against the
  7. Offences against public
  8. Offences by or relating to public
  9. Offences against humany
  10. Offences against
  11. Offences relating to Marriage : Cruelty.
  13. Law of
    1. Nature of tortious
    2. Liability based upon fault and strict
    3. Statutory
    4. Vicarious
    5. Joint Tort–fessors.
    8. Occupier‘s liability and liability in respect of
    12. False Imprisonment and Malicious III Law of Contracts and Mercantile Law.
  14. Formation of contract. (Indian Contract Act, 1872)
  15. Factors vitiating
  16. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements.
  17. Performance of
  18. Dissolution of contractual obligations,
  19. Quasi-contracts.
  20. Remedies for breach of
  21. Sale of goods and hire purchase (Sales of Goods Act, 1930).
  23. Formation and dissolution of Partnership (Indian Partnership Act,1932)
  24. Negotiable
  25. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986. IV Law of Evidence and Indian Evidence

Note : Neither Bare Act will be provided nor the candidates are allowed to bring a copy of any Bare Act in the Examination Hall.


Part – I

  1. Linear Algebra

Vector space, Linear dependance and independance, Sub spaces, Bases, Dimensions, Finite dimensional vector spaces.

Matrics, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors, Matrix of linear transformation, Row and column reduction, Echelon form, Equivalence, Congruence and Similarity, Reduction to Canonical form, Rank, Orthogonal, symmertrical, Skew Symmetrical, Unitary, Hermitian Skew-Hermitian forms–their given values. Orthogonal and Unitary reduction of quardratic and Hermition forms, Positive definite quadratic forms, Simultaneous reduction, Sylvester‘s law of inertia.

  1. Calculus

Real numbers, Limits, Continuity, Differentiability, Mean-value Theorems, Taylor‘s theorem with remainders, Indeterminate forms, Maxima and Minima, Asymptotes, Functions of several variables, Continuity, Differentiability, Partial derivatives,Maxima and Minima, Lagrange‘s method of Multipliers, Jacobian, Riemann‘s definition of Definite integrals; Indefinite integrals, infinite and improper integral, Double and triple integrals (techniques only). Repeated integrals, Beta and Gamma functions. Areas, Surface and Volumes, Centre of Gravity.

  1. Geometry

Cartesian and Polar coordinates in two and three dimension, Second degree equations in two and three dimensions, Reduction to Cannonical forms, Straight lines, Plane, Sphere, Cone, Cylinder, Paraboloid, Ellipsoid, Hyperboloid of one and two sheets and their properties. Shortest distance between two skew lines, Curves in space, Curvature and torsion. Serret-Frenet‘s formulae.

  1. Ordinary Differential Equations

Formation of differential equations, Order and Degree, Equations of first order and first degree, Integrating factor, Equations of first order but not of first degree, lairaut‘s equation, singular solution. Higher order linear equations with constant coefficients. Complementary function and particular integral. General solution. Euler-Cauchy equation.

Second order linear equations with variable coefficients. Determination of complete solution when one solution is known. Method of variation of parameters.

  1. Statics

Equilibrium of a system of particles, work and potential energy. Friction, Common Catenary, Principle of Virtual work, Stability of Equilibrium, Equilibrium of forces in three dimensions. ‗Lemi‘s theorem‘.

  1. Dynamics

Degree of freedom and constraints, Rectilinear motion, Simple Harmonic motion. Motion in a plane, Projectiles. Constrained Motion, Work and energy, Conservation of energy, Motion under Impulsive forces, Kepler‘s laws, Orbits under Central forces, Motion of varying mass, Motion under resistance.

  1. Hydrostatics

Pressure of heavy fluids. Equilibrium of fluids under given system of forces, Centre of pressure, Thrust on curved surfaces, Equilibrium of floating bodies. Stability of equilibrium. Metacentre, Pressure of gases, problems relating to atmosphere.

Part II

  1. Vector Analysis

Scalar and vector fields, triple products. Differentiation of Vector function of a scalar variable, Gradient, Divergence and Curl in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates and their physical interpretation. Higher

order derivatives. Vector Identities and Vector Equations, Application to Geometry, Gauss and Stoke‘s Theorems, Green‘s identities.

  1. Real Analysis

Real number system, Ordered sets. Bounds, Ordered Field, Real number systems as an Ordered Field with least Upper Bound, Cauchy Sequence, Completeness. Completion Continuous Functions, Uniform Continuity. Properties of continuous functions on compact sets. Riemann Integral, Improper integrals. Differentiation of functions of several variables, Maxima and Minima, Absolute and conditional Convergence of series of real and Complex terms, Rearrangement of series, Uniform convergence, Infinite Products. Continuity, differentiability and integrability for series, Multiple integrals. Infinite and alternating series.

  1. Numerical Analysis

Numerical Methods : Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations of one variable by bisection, Regula-falsi and Newton-Raphsons methods. Solution of system of linear equations by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordan (direct) methods. Gauss Seidel (iterative) method.

Interpolation : Nedwton‘s (forward and backword) and Lagrange‘s method.

  1. Mechanics

Concepts of particles, Lamina, Rigid Body, Displacement, Force, Mass, Weight, Motion, Velocity, Speed, Acceleration. Parallelogram of forces. Parallelogram of velocity, acceleration, resultant, equilibrium of coplanar forces. Moments, Couple, Friction, Centre of mass, Gravity. Laws of motion. Motion under conservative forces. Motion under gravity. Projectile, Escape velocity; Motion of artificial satellites.

  1. Probability

Sample space, Events, Algebra of events, Probability–Classical, Statistical and Axiomatic Approaches. Conditional Probability and Baye‘s Theorem Random Variables and Probability. Distributions–Discrete and Continuous. Mathematical Expectations. Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distributions.

  1. Statistical Methods

Collection, Classification, tabulation and presentation of data. Measures of central value. Measures of dispersion. Skewness, moments and Kurtosis. Correlation and regressiion.



  1. Theory of machines

Kinematic and dynamic analysis of planar mechanisms. Cams, Gears and gear trains. Flywheels, Governors, Balancing of rigid rotors. Linear vibration analysis of mechanical system, (single degree and two degrees of freedom). Critical speeds and whirling of shafts. Automatics controls. Belt and chains drives.

  1. Mechanics of Solids

Stress and strain in two dimensions. Principal stresses and strains. Mohr‘s circle, linear elastic materials. Stress-strain relations, uniaxial loading, thermal stresses. Beams : Bending moment and shear force diagrams, bending stresses and deflection of beams. Torsion of shafts, helical springs. Combined stresses. Thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Struts and columns. Strain energy concepts and theories of failure.

  1. Engineering materials

Basic concepts on structure of solids. Crystalline materials. Defects in crystalline materials. Alloys and binary phase diagrams. Properties of common engineering materials. Heat treatment of steels. Plastics, ceramics and composite materials, common applications of various materials. Corrosion. Powder Metallurgy.

  1. Manufacturing Science

Merchant‘s force analysis. Taylor‘s tool life equation, machinability and machining economics. Rigid, small and flexible automation. NC, CNC. Recent machining methods–EDM, ECM and ultrasonics. Applications of lasers and plasmas. Jigs, fixtures, tools and gauges. inspection of length, position, profile and surface finish.

  1. Manufacturing Management

Production planning and Control, Forecasting–Moving average, exponential smoothing, operations scheduling; assembly line balancing, Product development, Break-even analysis, Capacity planning, PERT and CPM. Control operations; Inventory control–ABC analysis. Basic EOQ model, Materials requirement planning, Job Design, Job standards. Work measurement. Quality Management–Quality analysis and control statistical quality control.

Value Engineering : Value analysis, for coat/value, Just in Time (JIT) technique, Enterprises Resources Planning (ERP). Total quality management . Project management.

Part II

  1. Thermodynamics

Basic concept, Open and closed systems, Applications of Thermodyanamic Laws. Gas equatiions, Clapeyron equation. Availability, Irreversibility.

  1. I. Engines, Fuels and Combustion

Spark Ignition and compression Ignition engines, Four stroke engine and Two-stroke engines, Mechanical, thermal and volumetric efficiency, Heat balance sheet, combustion process in S.I. and C.I. engine, Choice of engine fuels, Octane and Cetane ratings, Alternate fuels. Carburration and Fuel injection. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, stoichometric air requirements and excess air factor, higher and lower calorific values.

  1. Heat Transfer, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

One dimensional heat conduction. Heat transfer from extended surfaces, Heat transfer by forced and free convection, Heat exchangers. Fundamentals of diffusive and convective mass transfer, Radiation laws, heat exchange between black and non-black surfaces, Network Analysis, Heat pump refrigeration cycles and systems, Condensers, evaporators and expansion devices and controls. Properties and choice of refrigerant, Refrigeration systems and components psychrometrics, cooling load calculations, solar refrigeration.

  1. Turbo-Machines and Power Plants

Theory and design of axial flow turbines and compressors. Flow through turbo-machine blade, cascades, centrifugal compressors. Dimensional analysis and modelling, selection of site for steam, hydro, nuclear and stand-by power plants, selection, base and peak load power plants. Modern High pressure, High duty boilers, station and plant heat rates, operation and maintenance of various power plants, preventive maintenance, economics of power generation.



  1. Mechanics

Conservation Laws, collisions, impact parameter, scattering cross-section, centre of mass . Rutherford Scattering. Motion of a rocket under constant force field Rotating frames of reference. Coriolis force, motion of rigid bodies. Angular momentum. Torque and procession of a top. Central forces, Motion under inverse square law, Kepler‘s Laws, motion of satellites (including geostationary). Galilean Relativeity, Special Theory of Relativity, Mischelson-Morley Experiement, Lorentz transformation-addition theorem of velocities. Variation of mass with

velocity. Mass-Energy equivalence. Fluid dynamics, streamlines, turbulance, Barnoulli‘s Equation with simple applications.

  1. Thermal Physics

Laws of thermodynamics, entropy, Carnot‘s cycle, isothermal and adiabatic changes. Thermodynamic Potentials Maxwell‘s relations. The Clausius–Clapeyren equation reversible cell. Joule-Kalvin effect etc. Kinetic theory of gases. Maxwell‘s distribution law of velocities. Equipartition of energy, Specific heats of gases, mean free path. Brownian motion, black body radiation. Specific heat of solids-Einstean & Dabye theories. Wein‘s law, Planck‘s law solar constant.

  1. Waves and Oscillations

Oscillations. Simple harmonic motion. Stationary and travelling waves. Damped harmonic motion. Forced oscillation and Resonance. Wave equation. Harmonic solutions. Plane and spherical waves. Superposition of waves, Phase and group velocities. Beats. Hygen‘s principle Interference. Diffraction Fresnel and Fraunhofer. Diffraction by single slits. Resolving power of grating and optical instruments. Rayleigh Criterion. Laser sources (Ruby). Holography, theory and and applications.

Part-II :

  1. Electricity & Magnetism

Coulomb‘s Law, electric field. Gauss‘s Law, Electric Potential Poission and Laplace equations for a homogeneous dielectric uncharged conducting sphere in a uniform field. Point charge and infinite conducting plane. Magnetic shell, Magnetic induction and field strength. Blot-Savart law and applications, electromagnetic induction. Faraday‘s and Lenz‘s laws, Self and mutual inductances. Alternating currents. L.C.R. circuits series and parallel resonance circuits, quality factor. Kirchoff‘s laws with application. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Poynting vector. Magnetic fields in matter–dia, para, ferro antioferro and ferri magnetism (qualitative approach only).

  1. Modern Physics

Raman effect. Photo-electric effect. Compton effect. Debrogilee waves. Wave particle quality and uncertainty principle. Schrodinger wave equation with application to (i) particle in a box. (ii) Bohr‘s theory of H-

atom, calculation of e/m ratia and charge on e—. Principle radioactivity. Alpha, beta and gamma radiations.

Elementary theory of the alpha decay. Nuclear binding energy. Nuclear fission and fusion. Elementary reactor physics. Elementary particles and their classification. Strong and weak electromagnetic interactins. Particle accelerators; cyclotron. Elementary ideas of superconductivity.

  1. Electronics

Band theory of Solids–Conductors, insulators and semiconductors; intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, P- N junction. Zenner diodes reverse and forward biased P-N junction, use of diodes and transistors for rectification, amplification and oscilliation, Logic Gate (AND, OR, NOT).



Political Theory

  1. General characteristics of Western political thought.Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bentham, J.S. Mill, T.H. Green, Hegel, Marx, Lenin , Mao-se
  2. Nature and scope of political science. Significance of political theory. Elite and theories of Growth of political science as a discipline. Traditional vs. contemporary approaches. Behaviouralism and post behavioural developments. System theory and other recent approaches to political analysis. Marxist approach to political analysis. Power, authority and legitimacy. Different dimension of power. Theories of power in society.
  3. The emergence and nature of the modern state. Sovereignty. Monistic and pluralistic analysis of sovereignty. Dominant perspectives of modern state : alternate perspectives. Political culture and political socialization. Political participation and political communication. Modernisation and political development. Alienation and theory of Alienation. National building and national integration. Social conflict and
  1. Political obligation. Resistance and revolution. The concepts of freedom, liberty, equality, rights, property, justice, Human rights and gender issues. Theories of distributive justice. Notions of common good. Consumer protection with special reference to India.
  2. Democracy and political participation. Dominant theories of democracy. Political process and social change. Theories of social change–revolutionary change. Concepts of development, socialist, liberal, Gandhian and others. Critics of development modal, the debate on welfare state. Development and environment–the contemporary
  3. Liberalism, evolutionary socialism (democratic and fabian). Marxian socialism,

Government and politics with special Reference to India

  1. Approaches to the study of comparative politics. Study of Western and non-western
  2. Political institutions. The legislature, executive and judiciary. Parties and pressure groups. Theories of party system (Lenin, Michels and Duverger). Electoral system. Bureaucracy–Weber‘s view and modern critiques of Weber.
  3. Indian Political System : (a) The Roots, colonialism and nationalism in India. A general study of modern Indian social and political thought of Raja Rammohan Roy, Dadabhai Nauroji, Gokhale, Tilak, Sri Aurobindo, Iqbal, Jinnah, Gandhi, B.R. Ambedkar, M.N. Roy, Nehru, Vinobha Bhave and Jai Parkash
  • The structure – Basic features of Indian Constitution, Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles, Union Government, Parliament, Cabinet, Supreme Court and Judicial Review, Indian Federalism, Centre-state relations, State Government, Role of the Governor, Panchayati Raj
  • The Functioning–class and caste in Indian politics. Politics of regionalism, linguism and communalism. Problem of secularization of the policy and national integration. Political elites, the changing composition. Political parties and political participation. Pressure groups. Public opinion. Voting behaviour and electoral process. Ethnicity. Planning and developmental administration. Socio-economic changes and its impact on Indian

Part II

  1. Nature and concepts of international Functioning of the sovereignation state system; cold war

and neo-cold war–its origin, end and impact on global politics. Power. National interest. Balance of power. Power vacuum.

  1. Theories of international politics : The realist theory, System theory, Critical theories
  2. Foreign policy determinants and choices. National interest. Ideology. Elements of national power (including nature of domestic social-political institution). Imperialism. Balance of power. Isolationalism. Nationalistic universalism (Pax Britiannica, Pax Americana, Pax Sovietica), The Middle Kingdom complex of China, Non-alignment.
  3. Non-alignment movement. Its meaning and basis. Its role in international relations. De-colonization and expansion of the international community. Neo-colonialism and facialism, their impact on international
  4. International economic order : Aid, trade and economic development. The struggle for the new international economic order. Sovereignty over natural resources. The crisis in energy resources. Global politics of environment. Role of IMF, World Bank, WTO, ADB and North South
  5. Origin and development of international organisations. The United Nations and specialized agencies and their role in international
  6. Role of Regional organisations : OAS, OAU, the Arab League, the ASEAN. EU, APEC, SAARC, NAFTA
  7. Arms race, disarmament and arms control. Conventional and nuclear arms. Proxy wars and problem of terrorism. The Arms trade, its impact on Third world and its role in international relations. The uses and mis-uses of nuclear energy. The impact of nuclear weapons on international relations. The Partial Test ban Treaty. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) and
  8. Theory and practice of diplomacy. External intervention : Ideological, political and economic. Cultural imperialism. Covert intervention by the major
  1. The problems and prospects of the Indian Ocean being made a peace-zone and emerging cooperation under IOR–ARC and the conflict situation in West
  2. The post-war foreign policies of the major powers viz., United States, Soviet Union,

India and the World

  1. Determinants and making of India‘s foreign
  2. India‘s policy of non-alignment and its contribution through
  3. India‘s relations with major powers : USA, USSR, Russia, Japan,
  4. India and its neighbours : China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lank and
  5. Conflict and cooperation in South and Southeast Asia : Major conflicts, SAARC, ASEAN, ARF, IOR-ARC.
  6. India‘s foreign economic policy, globalization and changing world order; India and people of Indian
  7. India‘s concerns for nuclear proliferation and peace. PTBT,NPT, PNE, CTBT, UN Peace-Keeping and global
  8. Changing global environment and assessment of India‘s foreign


Part-I : Foundations of Psychology

  1. Scope and Methods of Psychology

Relation of psychology with sociology and anthropology. Methods of psychology-observation, interview, questionnaires, experimental methods, test methods, scales, case study. Methodological problems of psychology. General design of psychological research. Designs in experimental psychology.

  1. Biological basis of Psychology : Nerves and synapes, transmission of neural impulses, synaptic transmission. Organisation of the nervous system. Division of nervous system – spinal cord, the brain. Hierarchical structure of the brain–central core, limbic system. Endocrine system in context of human behaviour. Central peripheral nervous system. Genetic influence on behaviour–genetic laws of inheritance, the structure and functions of chromosomes. Reflex action. Localisation of functions in human cortex. Characteristics of sleep and arousal. Stages of sleep. Neural mechanism in sleep.
  1. Perception

Meaning, kinds and determinants of attention and vigilance. Perception of form, colour, depth, distance, motion. Theories of colour, vision and hearing. Geometrical illusions (types and theories). Theories of perception. Perceptual organisation. Person perception. Perceptual defence. Transactional approach to perception. Perception and personality. Figural after-effect. Perceptual styles, perceptical abnormalities.

  1. Learning

Types of learning. Learning theories. Operant and Classical conditioning. Instrumental conditioning type (appetitive and aversive conditioning). Cognitive learning. Transfer of learning. Perceptual learning. Learning and motivation. Laws of learning. Factors influencing learning. Discrimination learning. Probability learning. Programmed learning.

  1. Emotions and Stress

Characteristics of emotional behaviour. Expressions of emotions (emotional reactions). Physiological correlates of emotions. Role of nervous system and endocrine glands in emotions. Theories of emotions : James Lange, Cannon Bard and Schachter. Stress – Stressors (causes of stress)–conflict, change, lack of control, unpredictibility. Coping with stress.

  1. Memory

Nature of Memory. Methods of reproduction . Factors influencing memory. Stages of memory (encoding storage and retrieval). Theories of memory. Short-term memory. Longterm memory. Measurement of memory. Forgetting reminscence. Theories of forgetting. Causes of forgetting.

  1. Thinking

Nature and elements of thinking. Images and thinking. Language and thinking. Concept formatiion. Creative thinking. Deductive and Inductive reasioning. Problem solving–Nature and scientific methods of problem solving.

  1. Intelligence and Aptitude

Nature of intelligence. Theories of intelligence. Measurement of intelligence. Measurement of creativity. Constancy of I.Q. Aptitude. Measurement of aptitudes. The concept of social intelligence. Types of intelligence and aptitude tests.

  1. Motivation

Concept of need, drive, arousal and incentive. Characteristics of motivated behviour. Classification of motives. Extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation. Theories to motivation: psycho-analytic theory, drive theory, need hierarchy theory, vector valence theory. Concept of level of aspiration. Measurement of motivation. The apathetic and the alienated individual. Incentives.

  1. Personality

The concept and nature of personality. Development of self, culture and personality. Trait and type approaches. Determinants of personality. Theories of personality: Freud, Allport, Murray, Cettell. The Indian approach to personality–the concept of gunas. Measurement of personality: Subjective techniques, objective techniques and projective techniques.

  1. Attitudes and Values

Definition of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes. Characteristics formation and development of social attitude. Theories of attitudes. Balance and cognitive dissonance theory. Attitude measurement. Theories of attitude change. Values. Types of values. Motivational properties of values. Measurement of values.

  1. Development of Human Behaviour and Socialization

Effect of heredity, environment and cultural factors on behaviour. Nature, agencies and factors of socialization. Meaning, characteristics and formation of social norms. Meaning and determinants of social roles. Meaning and types of social status.

  1. Statistics in Psychology

Frequency distribution. Graphical representation of data. Histogram and polygon. Uses of mean, median, mode. Measures of central tendency variability. Standard deviation. Correlation and its use in psychology. Percentile and percentile ranks. Method for ungrouped data.

Part-II : Issues and Applications of Psychology

  1. Individual Differences

Psychological Tests and General Mental ability (intelligence). Types of psychological tests. Characteristics of a good psychological tests (s). Limitation of psychological tests. General mental ability (intelligence)–nature and theories of intelligence : Spearman, Thurston, Guilford, Jensen and Piaget. Heritability of intelligence.

  1. Classification of Psychological Disorders

Classifying psychological disorders. Emperical approachs to classification : DSM system of classification.

Recuring issues in classification.

  1. Abnormal behaviour

Psychological disorders. Concept of normalcy and abnormalcy. Causes of abnormal behaviour–biological, psychological and socio–cultural. Structural aspect of Freudian theory and defence mechanism.Neurosis–symptoms, aetiology and treatment. Phobic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, conversion disorder, disossiative disorder. Psychosomatic disorders–hypertension and peptic ulcers. Psychotic disorders – symptoms, aetiology and treatment. Functional Psychosis–depressive disorders, manic depressive psychosis, schizophrenia. Drug abuse – alchohal, narcotics, stimulants (amphetamines), hallucinogens (LSD), marijuana (hashish). Methods of assessing abnormal behaviour.

  1. Therapeutic Approaches (Treatment of Abnormalcy).

Psychoanalysis. Behaviour therapy. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapy. Group therapy.

Chemotherpy–Anti-psychotic drugs, Anti-anxiety drugs. Anti-depressent drugs. ECT.

  1. Application of Psychology to Organisational and Industrial

Personnel selection. Training. Work motivation. Job satisfaction. Worker‘s participation in management.

  1. Groups

Nature, types and functions of group. Crowd, mob and audience. The concept of small group. Properties of groups. Theories of group behaviour. Measurement of group behaviour. Interpersonal relations. Leadership–Nature, types, qualities, functions. Theories of leadership (Trait theory, complex strait theory, interactional theory).

  1. Social Change

Nature and characteristics of social change. Factors and theories of social change. Psychological basis of change. Steps in the change process. Resistance to change. Factors contributing to resistance. Planning for change. The concept of change-proneness. Meaning of social perception. Nature and importance of stereo-types. Nature, factors and theories of propaganda.

  1. Psychology and the Problem of Social Integration

The problem of ethnic prejudice. Nature of prejudice. Manifestations of prejudice. Development of prejudice. Measurement of prejudice. Amelioration of prejudice. Prejudice and personality. Steps to achieve social integration.

  1. Problems of Contemporary Society

Alcoholism and drug addiction. The socially deviant juvenile delinquency. Crime rehabiliation of the deviant. The problems of the aged.Success and failure of marriage. Divorce, separation. Parental fixation. Sibling rivalary. Special needs children (mentally retarded, blind, orthopaedically and hearing handicapped etc.). Approaches in dealing with them. Their physical, social, psychological and educational problems.


Part-I Administrative Theory

  1. Basic Premises : Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration. Private and Public Administration. Its role in developed and developing societies. Ecology of administration – social, economic, cultural, political and legal. Evolution of Public Administration as a discipline. Public Administration as an art and a science. New Public
  2. Theoriess of Organisation : Classical theory of Organisations (Henri Fayol, Luther Gulic and Others). The Human Relations Theory of Organisations (Elton Mayo and his dolleagues). Behavioural approach. Systems approach. Organizational
  • Principles of Organization : Unity of command. Authority and responsibility. Coordination. Span of control/supervision. Span control of coordination. Supervision and control. Centralization and decentralization. Delegation. Communication public relations – meaning, methods and significance.
  1. Administrative Behaviour : Decision making with special reference to the contribution of Herbert Simon. Theories of leadership. Communication. Morale.
  2. Structure of Organisations : Chief Executive. Types of Chief Executives and their functions. Line, staff and auxiliary agencies. Forms of administrative organisation. Departments, corporations, companies, boards and commissions. Independent regulatory commissions. Headquarters and field
  3. Personal Administration : Bureaucracy and civil services. Position classification. Recruitment. Training. Career development. Performance appraisal. Promotion. Pay and service conditions. Retirement benefits. Discipline. Employer-employee relations. Integrity in administration. Generalists and specialists. Neutrality and anonymity. Public Service Commission. Morale. Joint consulative machinery (white councils).
  • Financial Administration : Concept of budget. Principle of budget making. Preparation, passing and execution of budget. Performance budgeting. Legislative control. Accounts and audit. Significance of audit. Parliamentary control over public
  • Accountability and Control : The concepts of accountability and control. Legislative, executive and judicial control over administration. Parliamentary and government control over public corporation. Citizen and administration.
  1. Administrative Reforms : O & M. Work study. Work measurement. Administrative reforms. Processes and obstacles.
  2. Administrative Law : Importance of administrative law. Delegated legislation – meaning, types, advantages, limitations and safeguards. Administrative tribunals.
  3. Comparative and Development Administration : Meaning, nature and scope of comparative public administration. The concept, scope and significance of development administration. Political, economic and socio- cultural context of development administration. The concept of administrative
  • Public Policy : Relevance of policy making in public administration. The processes of policy formulation and

Part-II Indian Administration

  1. Evolution of Indian Administration : Kautilya, Mughal period and British period. Features of Indian administration, its role in the context of democratic system and socio economic development.
  2. Environmental Setting : Parliamentary democracy. Federalism. Planning. Socialism.
  • Political Executive at the Union Level : Prime Minister. Council of Ministers. Cabinet Committees.
  1. Structure of Central Administration : Secretariat, Cabinet Secretariat, Ministries and Departments. Board and Commissions. Field organisations.
  2. Centre-State Relations : Administrative. Planning and financial.
  3. Public Services : All India Services. Central Services. State Services. Local Civil Services. Union and State Public Service Commission. Recruitment, training, promotion, discipline, morale of civil
  • Machinery for Planning : Plan formulation at the national level. National Development Council. Planning Commission. Planning machinery at the state and district levels. State planning board. Preparation of Five Year Plans. Centre State relations regarding
  • Public Undertakings : Forms, management, control and
  1. Control of Public Expenditure : Preparation of Indian budget and its enactment. Parliamentary control over public finance in India. Role of the Finance Ministry. Role of Comptroller and Auditor General over financial administration. Composition and function of Public Accounts Committee and Estimates Committees at the
  1. State Administration : Chief Minister. Council of Ministers. Secretariat. Chief Secretary. Directorates.
  2. District Administration : Salient features of district administration. Role and position of Deputy Commissioner and Superintendent of Police in district administration. Role of Deputy Commissioner in development functions. Role of Divisional Commissioner. District Rural Development Agency. Special Development Programmes. Role of District Collector in land and revenue matters. Role of District Magistrate in law and
  • Local Administration : Meaning and significance. Evolution of local government in India since 1882. Muncipalities – composition, functions, finances, personnel, general working of municipal bodies with special reference to Haryana. State Government‘s control over muncipal bodies. Autonomy of local bodies. Problems of municipalities. State department and directorate of muncipal bodies, its organisation and functions. Role of the Ministry of urban development as well as the central council of local self-government in regard to municipalities. Municipal Corporation – composition, functions and finances. Town and metropolitan planning in India. 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. Rural Local Government – Zila Parishad, Panchayat Samiti, Panchayat. Their composition, functions, finance, personnel. State Government‘s control over their working. Role of political parties in Panchayati Raj. 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992. Problems of rural-urban
  • Administration for Welfare : Meaning, objective and concept of welfare state. Social welfare administration in India. Welfare state and the constitution of India. The directive principles of the state policy. Administration for the welfare of weaker sections like scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women. Welfare programmes for
  • Issue Areas in Indian Administration : Relationship between political and permanent executives. Generalists and specialists in administration. Integrity in administration. People‘s participation in administration. Redressal of citizen‘s grievances. Lok Pal and Lok Ayuktas. Administrative reforms in India. Accountability of Indian administration to the parliament and judiciary . Problems and causes for the backwardness of agricultural development. Programme of centre and state government for agricultural



  1. Origin of Punjabi language: Different stages of development and recent development in Punjabi language. Characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones. Classification of vowels and
  2. Punjabi morphology: The number-gender system (animate and inanimate), prefixes, affixes and different categories of post positions; Punjabi word formation; Tatsam, Tad Bhav forms; sentence structure, the notion of subject and object in Punjabi; noun and verb phrases. .
  3. Language and dialect: The notions of dialect and idiolect; major dialects of Punjabi (Pothohari, Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Paudhi) ; the validity of speech variation on the basis of social stratification, the distinctive features of various dialects with special reference to tones, language and script; origin and development of Gurmukhi; suitability of Gurmukhi for
  4. Classical background: Nath Jogi

Medieval literature: Gurmat, Sufi, Kissa and Var : janamsakhis.

  1. Modern trends : Mystic, romantic, progressivc and neomystic (Vir Singh, Puran Singh, Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Bawa Balwant, Pritam Singh Safeer, J. S. Neki). Experimentalist (Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, Ravinder Ravi, Ajaib Kamal). Aesthetes (Harbhajan Singh, Tara Singh). Neo-progressive (Pash, Jagtar, Patar).
  2. Folk literature : Folk songs, folk tales, riddles, Epic : (Vir Singh, Avtar Singh Azad, Mohan Singh)

Lyric : (Gurus, sufis and Modern Lyricists–Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Shiv Kumar, Harbhajan Singh).

  1. Drama : (I.C. Nanda, Harcharan Singh, Balwant Gargi, S.S. Sekhon, Alamjit and A.S. Aulakh).

Novel : (Vir Singh, Nanak Singh, Jaswant Singh Kanwal, Sukhbir, Gurdial Singh, Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Swarn Chandan, Ram Saroop Ankhi).

Short Story : (Sujan Singh, K.S. Duggal, K. S. Virk, Prem Parkash, Waryam Sandhu)

  1. Socio-cultural literary influences: Sanskrit, Persian and Western. Essay : (Puran Singh, Teja Singh, Gurbaksh Singh, S.Kapoor).

Literary Criticism : (S.S. Sekhon, Attar Singh, Kishan Singh, Harbhajan Singh, S.S. Noor, Najam Hussain Sayyad).

Part II

This part will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate‘s critical ability.

1 Sheikh Farid : The complete Bani included in the Adi Granth.

  1. Guru Nanak : Japu Ji Baramah, Asa di
  2. Builieh Shah : Kafian
  3. Waris Shah : Heer
  4. Shah Mohammnd : Jangnama (Jang Singhan te Firangian)

Dhani Ram Chatrik (Poet) : Chandan Vari, Sufi Khnna, Nawan Jahan.

  1. Nanak Singh (Novelist) : Chitta Lahu, Pavittar Papi, Ek Mian Do
  2. Gurbaksh Singh (Essayist) : Zindagi di Ras, Nawan Shivala, Merian Abhul Balraj Sahni (Travelogue) : Mera Roosi Safarnama, Mera Pakistani Safarnama.
  3. Balwant Gargi (Dramatist) : Loha Kutt, Dhuni-di-Agg , Sultan

Sant Singh Sekhon (Critic) : Sahityarth, Parsidh Punjabi Kavi, Punjabi Kav Shiromani.


Part- I General Sociology

  1. Sociology as a Discipline

Sociology as a science and as an interpretative discipline. Impact of industrial and French Revolution on the emergence of sociology. Sociology and its relationship with history, economics, political science, psychology and anthropology.

  1. Scientific Study of Social Phenomena

Problem of objectivity and value neutrality. Issue of measurement in social science. Elements of scientific method–concepts, theory and fact, hypothesis. Research designs–descriptive, exploratory and experimental.

  1. Techniques of Data Collection and Analysis

Significance of social research. Participant, Non participant and quasi-participant. Methods and techniques of data collection (observation, interview, questionnaire and schedule, survey and case study). Sampling–size, reliability and validity. Types and sources of data (primary and secondary). Tabulation, classifications and analysis of data. Scaling techniques–social distance and Likert scale. Statistical methods in social research–measure of central tendency (mean, median, mode), measure of dispersion (mean deviation, standard deviation).

  1. Pioneering Contributions to Sociology
    • Karl Marx : Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation and class struggle. (b) Emile Durkheim : Division of labour, social fact, religion and society. (c) Max Weber : Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. (d) Tolcott Parsons : Social system, pattern variables. (e) Robert K. Merton ; Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference
  2. Marriage and Family

Types and forms of marriage. Family-structure and function. Personality and socialization. Social control. Family lineage, descent and property. Changing structure of family. Marriage and sex roles in modern society. Divorce and its implications. Gender issues. Role conflicts.

  1. Social stratification

Concepts–hierachy, inequality and stratification. Theories of stratificatin–Marx, Davis and Moore Critique. Forms and functions. Different conceptions of class. Class-in-itself and class-for-itself. Caste and class. Caste as a class.

  1. Social Mobility

Types of mobility–open and closed models. Intra-and inter-generational mobility. Vertical and horizontal mobility. Social mobility and social change.

  1. Economic System

Sociological dimensions of economic life. The impact of economic processes on the larger society. Features of pre-industrial and industrial economic system. Industrialization and social change. Social determinants of economic development. Globalization and Liberalization.

  1. Political System

The nature of power–personal power, community power, power of the elite, class power, organisational power, power of the un-organised masses. Authority and legitimacy. Pressure groups and political parties. Voting behaviour. Modes of political participation–democratic and authoritarian forms.

  1. Educational System

Education and Culture. Equality of educational opportunity. Social aspects of mass education. Problems of universalisation of primary education. Role of community and state intervention in education. Educating as an instrument of social change.

  1. Religion

Origins of religious beliefs in pre-modern societies. The sacred and the profane. Social functions and dysfunctions of religion. Monistic and pluralistic religion. Organised and unorganised religions. Sect and cults. Magic, religon and science.

  1. Social Movements

Concept of social movement. Genesis of social movements. Ideology and social movement. Social movement and social change. Types of social movements.

  1. Social Change and Development

Continuity and change as fact and as value. Theories of social change–Marx, Persons and Sorokin. Directed social change. Social policy and social development.

Part-II Study of Indian Society

  1. Historical Moorings of the Indian Society and Indian Social

Traditional Hindu social organisation. Socio-cultural dynamics through the ages. Impact of Buddhism, Islam, and the West. Factors in continuity and change. Unity and diversity.

  1. Caste System

Origin of the caste system. Cultural and structural views about caste. Mobility in caste system. Caste among Muslims and Christians. Change and persistence of caste in modern India. Issues of equality and social justice. Views of Gandhi and Ambedkar on caste. Caste and Indian polity. Emergence of Dalit consciousness.

  1. Marriage, Family and Kinship

Meaning of marriage. Types of marriage. Rules of mates selection. Stability of marriage. Patterns of marriage among Hindus, Muslims. Ways of acquiring mates among the tribes. Marriage among different ethnic groups, its changing trends and its future. Family –its structural and functional aspects–changing forms. Types of family (nuclear, extended and joint family). Family problems. Disintegration of family, its causes, future of family. Impact of legislation and socio-economic change on marriage and family. Generation gap. Inheritance, succession and descent of kinship. Regional variations in kinship systems, North and South Indian kinship patterns.

  1. Class and Agrarian Class Structure

Indian Social class structure. Emergence of middle class. Peasant society and agrarian systems. Land tenure systems–historical perspectives. Social consequences of land reforms and green revolution. Feudalism and semi- feudalism debates. Emerging agrarian class structure. Agrarian unrest.

  1. Industry and Society

Path of industrialisation and occupational diversification. Trade union and human relations. Market economy and its social consequences. Economic reforms–liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.

  1. Political Processes

Working of the democratic political system in a traditional society. Political parties and their social bases. Social structural origins of political elites and their orientations. Regionalism, pluralism and national unity. Decentralisation of power. Panchayati Raj and Nagarpalikas. 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amedments. Women and Panchayati Raj.

  1. Education

Directive Principles of State Policy and primary education. Educational inequality and change. Education and social mobility. The role of community and state intervention in education. Universalisation of primary education. Total literacy campaign. Educational problems of disadvantaged groups.

  1. Religion and Society

Size, growth and regional distribution of different religious groups. Educational levels of different groups.

Problems of religious minorities. Communal tensions. Secularism. Religious fundamentalism. Conversions.

  1. Tribal Societies

Distinctive features of tribal communities and their geographical spread. Problems of tribal communities– land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, health and nutrition, education. Tribal development efforts after independence. Tribal policy–isolation, assimilation and integration, issues of tribal indentity.

  1. Population Dynamics

Population size, growth, composition and distribution. Components of population growth (birth rate, death rate and migration). Determinants and consequences of population growth. Issues of age at marriage, sex ratio, infant mortality rate. Population policy and family welfare programmes.

  1. Dimensions of Development

Strategy and ideology of planning, poverty, indebtedness and bounded labour. Strategies of rural development–poverty alleviation programmes. Problems involved in urban growth–basic infrastructure, environment, housing, slums, and unemployment. Programmes for urban development.

  1. Social Change

Endogenous and exogenous sources of change and resistance to change. Processes of change–sanskritisation and modernisation. Factors (agents) of social change – demographic, environmental, technological, economical, mass media and communication, educational, cultural, religious, legislative. Processes of social change in India – Sanskritizatiion, urbanization, westernization, secularization, industrialization, modernization. Problems of change and modernisation. Structural contradictions and breakdowns. Development and social change. Theories of social change– linear, cyclic fluctuation, conflict. Formal strategies of social change – social planning and legislation. Informal strategies of social change – social movements in India.

  1. Social Movements

Reform movements–Brahm Samaj, Arya Samaj and Satya Sadhak Samaj. Peasant movements–Kisan Sabha, Telengana and Naxalbari. Backward castes movement. Self-respect movement. Backward castes mobilisatin in North India.

  1. Women and Society

Demographic profile of women. Special problems–dowry, atrocities, discrimination, gender inequality, marital adjustment, famility tension and violence. Welfare programmes for women and their impact. Child welfare Schemes.

  1. Social Problems

Prostitution, AIDS, alcoholism, drug addiction, corruption, dowry, youth unrest, regionalism, casteism, poverty, unemployment, bonded labour, discrimination and atrocities on S.C./S.T. and women. Legal measures to eradicates to social problems.



  1. Main characteristics of Vedic Sanskrit language. Prominent feature of classical Sanskrit language. Contribution of Sanskrit to linguistic
  2. Significant features of grammar, with particular stress on Sanjna, Sandhi, Karaka, Samasa, Kartri and Karma vacyas (voice usages)
  3. General knowledge of : (a) Literary history of Sanskrit (b) Principal trends of literary criticism (c) Ramayana (d) Mahabharata (e) The origin and development of literary geners of Mahakavya, Rupaka (drama), Katha, Akhyayika, Champu, Khandakavya, Muktaka
  4. Essential of Indian Culture with stress on: (a) Purusarthas (b) Samaskaras (c) Varnasrama vyavastha (d) Arts and fine arts (e) Technical sciences
  5. Trends of Indian Philosophy: (a) Mimansa (b) Vedanta (c) Nyaya (d) Vaisesika (e) Sankhya (f) Yoga (g) Bauddha (h) Jaina (i) Charvaka
  6. Short Essay in Sanskrit (at least 250 words)
  1. Unseen passage with the questions (to be answered in Sanskrit).
  1. Translation from Hindi to Sanskrit

Part II

  1. General study of the following works: (a) Isavasyopanisad (b) Bhagavadgita (c) Sundarakanda of Valmiki‘s Ramayana (d) Arthasastra of Kautilya (e) Raghuvamsam–Kalidasa (f) Kumarasambhavam–Kalidas (g) Kadambari–Banabhatta (h) Dasakumaracaritam–Dandin (i) Sivarajyodayam–S.B. Varnekar (j) Svapanavasavadattam–Bhasa (k) Abhijnana Sakuntalam–Kalidasa (l) Mrcchakatikam – Sudraka (m) Mudrsaraksasa–Visakhadatta (n) Uttararamacharitam–Bhavbhuti (o) Ratnavali–Sriharshavardhana
  2. Write short notes in Sanskrit on the following : (a) Meghadutam–Kalidasa (b) Nitisatakam–Bhartrhari (c) Panchtantra–Vishnusharma (d)Rajatarangini–Kalhana (e) Harsacharitam–Banabhatta (f) Gitagovindam– Jayadeva.
  3. Evidence of first hand reading of the following selected texts (questions are to be answered in Sanskrit): (a) Isavasyopanisad–verses–1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 15 and 18. (b) Bhagavatgita-II chapter, verses 13 to 25 (c) Sundarakandam of Valmiki–Canto 15, Verses 1 to 30 (Geeta Press Edition) (d) Raghuvamsam–Canto I, Verses 1 to 10 (e) Kumarasambhavam–Canto I, Verses 1 to 10 (f) Meghadutam–verses 1to 10 (g) Nitisatakam–Verses 1 to 10 (Edited by D.D. Kosambi, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Publication) (h) Kadambari–Sukanasopadesa (only) (i) Svapnavasavadattam Act VI (j) Abhijnansakuntalam Act IV verses 15 to 30 (M.R. Kale Edition) (k) Uttararamacharitam Act I verses 31 to 47 (M.R. Kale Edition)



  1. Non-Chordata
    1. A general survey, classification and relationship of the various phyla and their subdivision upto
    2. Protozon : Study of the structure and life history of Paramaccium, Monocyotis, malarial parasite, Trypanosoma. Locomotion, nutrition and reproduction in
    3. Porifera : Canal system, skeleton and
    4. Coelentrata : Structure and life history of Obelia and Aurelia, Polymorphism in Hydrozoa, coral formation,
    5. Helminths : Structure and life history of Fasciola, Taenia and Parasitic adaptation. Helminths in relation to man.
    6. Annelida : Earthworm and leech. Coelom and metamerism, modes of life in
    7. Artropoda : Cockroach, larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea, respiration in arthoropods, social life and metamorphosis in insects. Importance of
    8. Mollusca : Pila, oyster culture and pearl
    9. Echinodermata-General organisation, affinities of
  2. Protochordata
    1. General organisation and characters, outline classification and inter-relationship of protochordata with chordates.
    2. Neoteny and retrogressive
    3. Chordata
      1. A general study of comparative account of the various systems of
      2. Locomotion, migration and respiration in fishes; affinities of
      3. Origin of Amphibia; anatomical peculiarities and affinities of urodela and
  1. Origin of Repitles; adaptive radiation in reptitles; fossil reptile; poisonous and non-poisonous snakes of India; poison apparatus of
  2. Origin of birds; aerial adaptation and migration of
  3. Origin of mammals; dentition and skin derivatives in mammals; distribution, structural peculiarities and phylogenetic relations of Prototheria and
  1. Ecology
    1. Environment : Abiotic factors and their role. Biotic factors–intra and interspecific
    2. Animal : Organisation at population and community levels, ecological
    3. Ecosystem : Concept, components, fundamental operation, energy flow, biogeo-chemical, cycles, food chain and trophic
    4. Adaptation in fresh water, marine and terrestrial
    5. Pollution in air, water and soil.
    6. Wild life in India and its
  2. Ethology
    1. General survey of various types of animals
    2. Role of hormones and phermones in
  3. Biostatistics

Methods of sampling, frequency distribution and measures of central tendency, standard deviation, standard error and standard deviance, correlation and regression and Chisquare and t-test.

  1. Economic Zoology
    1. Parasitism, commensalism and host parasite
    2. Parasitic protozoans, helminthis and insects of man and domestic
    3. Insect pests of wheat, paddy and sugarcane and stored
    4. Beneficial
    5. Pisciculture and induced breeding (carps only).

Part II

  1. Cell Biology

Structure and function of cell and cytoplasmic constituents. Structure of nucleus. Plasma membrane mitochondria, golgibodies, endo-plasmic reticulum and ribosomes. Cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Watson- Crick models of DNA. Replication of DNA. Genetic code. Protein synthesis. Cell differentiation.

  1. Genetics

Mendelian laws of inheritance. Recombination linkage and linkage maps. Multiple allels. Mutation (natural and induced). Mutation and evolution. Chromosomal abberations : structural rearrangements, aneuploidy and polyploidy. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genes and diseases. Eugenics.

  1. Evolution and Systematics

Origin of life. History of evolutionary through Lamarck and his works, Darwin and his works, sources and nature of organic variation. Natural selection. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Cryptic and warning colouration mimicry. Isolating mechanisms and their role. Concept of species and subspecies, principles of classificatioin. Zoological nomenclature. Fossils, outline of geological eras, phylogeny of horse, origin and evolution man, principles and theories of continental distribution of animals.

  1. Biochemistry

Structure of carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids, proteins, and nucleic acids, glycolysis and krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release ATP, b oxidation of fatty acids, structure and functions of cholesterol, steroid hormones. Types of enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action, immunoglobulin and immunity. Hormons, their classification, biosynthesis and functions.

  1. Physiology

Physiology with special reference to mammals. Composition of blood, blood groups in man, coagulation, oxygen and carbondioxide transport, haemoglobin, breathing and its regulation. Nephron and urine formation, acid base balance and osmoregulation. Mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse along axon and across synapes, neurotransmitters. Types of muscles, ultrastructures and mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscle. Role of salivary gland, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion, absorption of digested food, nutrition and balanced diet of man. Mechanism of action of steriod and peptide hormones, role of hypothalamus, pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, testis ovary and pineal organs and their inter-relationships. Physiology of reproduction in humans.

  1. Embryology

Gametogenesis, fertilization, types of eggs, cleavage, development upto gastrulation in frog and chick. Fate maps of frog and chick, meta-morphosis in frog. Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick. Formation of amnion allantois and types of placenta in mammals, function of placenta in mammals; Organisers. Regeneration . Organogenesis of central nervous system, sense organs, heart and kidney of vertebrate embryos.