16th October 2018, Current Affairs and News Analysis for UPSC Civil Service Examination, SSC CGL and State Civil Service Examinations.

16th October 2018 - Current Affairs for UPSC IAS and State Civil Service Exam

National

Global Skills Park

Recently, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Indian government signed a $ 150 million loan agreement for setting up a Global Skill Park (GSP) in Madhya Pradesh.

  • This will be India's first multi-skill park.
  • Its aim is to improve the quality of technical and vocational education and training system in the state and create more skilled workforce.
  • The new GSP campus will be set up in Bhopal, which will be the main advanced training institute.
  • There will also be centers of professional skill training center and advanced agricultural training center as well as other related services, with focus on entrepreneurship, training of trainers and skill-related research.
  • About twenty thousand trainees and trainers will benefit from this campus.

India for humanity

  • Ministry of External Affairs has initiated this program as part of the 150th birth anniversary celebration of Mahatma Gandhi, which is going on for the next one year, with respect to honoring the services of Gandhiji towards humanity.
  • Underlining Mahatma Gandhi's compassion, care and service of humanity, under the program 'India or India for Humanity' for humanity, one-year-long prosthetic camps will be organized around the world, for this, The Trust is working closely with 'Lord Mahavir Handicapped Society'.
  • Founded in 1975, this committee is well-known for its trademark body "Jaipur Foot", Lord Mahavir Handicapped Support Committee is one of the largest organizations in the world for the fitness of artificial limbs and has so far served more than 1.73 million people. is.
  • This organ extradition camp will be fully sponsored by the Ministry of External Affairs.

National mental health rehabilitation institute

Recently the Union Cabinet has approved the opening of the National Mental Health Rehabilitation Institute (NIMHR) in Sehore district of Madhya Pradesh. It is notable that earlier this institute was to be opened in Bhopal.

  • The National Institute of Mental Health rehabilitation instituted in Sehore will be the first institute of its kind in the country.
  • This organization will be set up under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 as a society under the Disabled People Empowerment Department.
  • The main purpose of the institute is to arrange for the rehabilitation of mentally ill persons, to create capacity for mental health rehabilitation and to make policy for rehabilitation of mental health and promote research.
  • This institute will work as an excellence and capacity development center for human resources and research in the field of mental health rehabilitation and will provide better models for the effective rehabilitation of people with mental disorders.
  • The institute provides all types of rehabilitation services for mental patients, as well as the M.Phil and M.Phil. Degree education will also be arranged.

Technology

Bharat Broadband Network Limited

  • The new corporate office of Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL) has been inaugurated in New Delhi.
  • BBNL has played a key role in leading the successful implementation of the BharatNet project for digitally connecting all 2,50,000 Gram Panchayats (GPs) in the country.
  • The objective of this flagship project of our Government is to facilitate the delivery of e-governance, e-health, e-education, e-banking and other services to citizens in every part of our country, on a non-discriminatory basis.

Health

Antibiotic Misuse in India

  • Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health.
  • It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called “super bugs”: relatively harmless bacteria (such as staphylococcus, enterococcus and acinetobacter) can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.
  • The widespread use of antibiotics is estimated to have extended average life expectancy by two decades, shifting the paradigm from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Antimicrobials and antibiotics in particular have paved the way for major advances in cancer treatment, organ transplantation, and surgery, irrevocably changing the scope of modern medicine.
  • Every time a new antimicrobial is introduced, drug resistance to that antimicrobial follows, sometimes swiftly, and this occurs for antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungal therapies. Antimicrobial treatment places selective pressure on the organism, favouring the emergence of drug-resistant strains.
  • This is not a new problem: antibiotic resistance emerged within a decade of the first clinical trials of penicillin, with more than 50% resistance among Staphylococcus aureus by the end of the 1940s. Until recently we have escaped the dire consequences of antimicrobial resistance because there has been a stream of new antibiotics. However, over the past 20 years the number of pharmaceutical companies investing in this area has dwindled from 18 to 4, inevitably leading to stalled drug development.
  • Antimicrobial resistance affects every country because infections do not respect international boundaries or borders. Each time a person travels they take their active infections and colonising bacteria with them, spreading drug-resistant organisms across the globe. Many countries overuse antibiotics, particularly in hospitals.
  • Although hospital prescribing accounts for only 20% of human usage, it is important because it is concentrated, and because hospitals are fertile breeding grounds for drug-resistant bacteria. In animals and fish antibiotics are used as a substitute for good hygiene, with little understanding of how this might impact on antimicrobial resistance in humans. As a society we must urgently reconsider how we use antimicrobials to preserve this valuable resource for future generations.

India’s Case

  • India needs to strengthen and implement regulations on antibiotic misuse.
  • Even as antibiotics lose their efficacy against deadly infectious diseases worldwide, it seems to be business as usual for governments, private corporations and individuals who have the power to stall a post-antibiotic apocalypse.
  • In a recent investigation, it was found that the world’s largest veterinary drug-maker, Zoetis, was selling antibiotics as growth promoters to poultry farmers in India, even though it had stopped the practice in the U.S.
  • India is yet to regulate antibiotic-use in poultry, while the U.S. banned the use of antibiotics as growth-promoters in early 2017.

National Health Resource Repository (NHRR)

  • NHRR is the country’s first ever national healthcare facility registry of authentic, standardized and updated geo-spatial data of all public & private healthcare establishments.
  • This web based database of healthcare resources with visualization will immensely support the healthcare policy makers to enable evidence based decision making to strengthen the Indian health system.
  • NHRR will cohesively work with Ayushman Bharat - National Health Protection Mission (AB-NHPM) and Central TB Division (CTD) on an integrated plan for the larger benefit of ensuing Hospital empanelment and private sector engagement.

Important Day

15 October: International Day of Rural Women

The International Day of Rural Women was observed globally on October 15, 2018 with the theme, “Sustainable infrastructure, services and social protection for gender equality and the empowerment of rural women and girls”.

The theme places empowerment of rural women at the heart of fulfilling the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Significance

The day aims to highlight the invaluable contribution of rural women to development and the crucial role they play in ensuring the sustainability of rural households and communities, improving rural livelihoods and overall wellbeing.

Women account for a substantial proportion of the agricultural labour force, including informal work, and perform the bulk of unpaid care and domestic work within families and households in rural areas.

Thus, they make significant contributions to agricultural production, food security and nutrition, land and natural resource management, and building climate resilience.

However, the women and girls in rural areas suffer disproportionately from multi-dimensional poverty. While extreme poverty has declined globally, the world’s 1 billion people who continue to live in unacceptable conditions of poverty are heavily concentrated in rural areas.

The poverty rates in rural areas across most regions are higher than those in urban areas, yet smallholder agriculture produces nearly 80 per cent of food in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and supports the livelihoods of some 2.5 billion people.

Though the women farmers may be as productive and enterprising as their male counterparts, they are less able to access land, credit, agricultural inputs, markets and high-value agrifood chains and obtain lower prices for their crops.